A big “thank you” to all those who died in the Chicago rail yards so that we might have the day off to grill hot dogs… Happy Labor Day

I know it’s probably cheating, but here’s something that I posted more than half a decade ago on the occasion of Labor Day. If anything, I think it’s even more appropriate today, seeing as how Michigan has since become a so-called “right to work” state, and we now how have an unquestionably anti-worker administration running our country.

pullmantownstrike

As some of you probably know, Labor Day was first celebrated here in the United States in 1882. It wasn’t, however, made a national holiday until 1894, in the wake of a bloody strike by employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company, an Illinois-based manufacturer of luxury rail cars. It all began when the company, after having cut the wages of workers across the board by as much as 25%, refused to reduce the rent charged to these same workers, who lived and worked in the company town of Pullman, Illinois. And, from there, the strike spread throughout the railroad industry… The following extended clip comes from the Kansas Heritage Group:

…The strike went peacefully, but after several weeks the Pullman management had not changed its position and the strikers were desperate for aid. During the strike, the American Railway Union had convened in Chicago because it was the rail center of the United States. The recently formed American Railway Union had 465 local unions and claimed the memberships of 150,000 workers. Since, the Pullman workers were an affiliated union on strike in Chicago the ARU offered to send arbitrators for the Pullman cause. The Pullman workers refused this aid, even so the ARU under the leadership of Eugene Debs decided to stop handling Pullman cars on June 26 if the Pullman Union would not agree to arbitration. The stage was set for the largest strike in the nation’s history.

On June 26, the ARU switchmen started to refuse to switch trains with Pullman cars. In response, the General Managers Association began to fire the switchmen for not handling the cars. The strike and boycott rapidly expanded, paralyzing the Chicago rail yards and most of the twenty-four rail lines in the city.

On July 2 a federal injunction was issued against the leaders of the ARU. This Omnibus Indictment prevented ARU leaders from “…compelling or inducing by threats, intimidation, persuasion, force or violence, railway employees to refuse or fail to perform duties…” This injunction was based on the Sherman anti-trust act and the Interstate commerce act and was issued by federal judges Peter S. Grosscup and William A. Woods under the direction of, Attorney General, Richard Olney. The injunction prevented the ARU leadership from communicating with their subordinates and chaos began to reign.

Governor Altgeld of Illinois had been hesitant to employ the state militia to put down the strike instead relying on the local authorities to handle the situation. However, he said he would use the National Guard to protect property. Above all Governor Altgeld did not want federal troops to intervene. However, the issuing of this federal injunction and the fact that mail-trains might be delayed caused President Grover Cleveland to send in federal troops from Fort Sheridan. On July 3, Federal troops entered Chicago against Governor Altgeld’s repeated protests. Governor Altgeld protested by writing President Cleveland on July 5, saying, “…surely the facts have not been correctly presented to you in this case, or you would not have taken the step, for it seems to me, unjustifiable. Waiving all questions of courtesy I will say that the State of Illinois is not only able to take care of itself, but it stands ready to furnish the Federal Government any assistance it may need else where…” Despite these repeated protests by Governor Altgeld, President Cleveland continued to send in federal troops.

The reaction of the strikers to the appearance of the troops was that of outrage. What had been a basically peaceful strike turned into complete mayhem. The mayhem began on July 4, with mobs of people setting off fireworks and tipping over rail cars. The workers started to tip railcars and build blockades in reaction to the presence of the federal troops. In addition to this, there was additional level of chaos caused by the ARU leaders’ inability to communicate with the strikers because of the federal indictments. The rioting grew and spread then on July 7, a large fire consumed seven buildings at the World’s Colombian Exposition in Jackson Park. This burning and rioting came to a zenith on July 6, when fires caused by some 6,000 rioters destroyed 700 railcars and caused $340,000 of damages in the South Chicago Panhandle yards.

At this time in the Chicago vicinity, there were 6,000 federal and state troops, 3,100 police, and 5,000 deputy marshals. However, all this manpower could not prevent the violence from peaking when on July 7, national guardsmen after being assaulted, fired into the crowd killing at least four (possibly up to thirty) and wounding at least twenty. The killing continued when two more people were killed by troops in Spring Valley, Illinois. All this violence started to cause the strike to ebb and on that same day Eugene Debs and four other ARU leaders were arrested for violating the indictment. These officers were later realized on $10,000 bond. The strike was failing rapidly, so the ARU tried to enlist the aid of the AFL in the form of sympathetic strikes. When this was refused the ARU attempted to abandon the strike, on the grounds that workers would be rehired without prejudice except were convicted of crimes however, this offer was refused by the General Managers’ Association. The strike continued to dwindle, and trains began to move with increased frequency. The strike became untenable for the workers and on August 2 the Pullman works reopened.

This strike was truly monumental if some of the figures for lost revenues are looked at. The railroads alone lost an estimated $685,308 in expenses incurred during the strike. However, the railroads lost even more in revenue an estimated $4,672,916. In addition, 100,000 striking employees lost wages of an estimated $1,389,143. These costs are just the localized effects of the paralyzation of the nation’s rail center and do not include the far ranging financial effects. The manpower used to break the strike was also immense. The total forces of the strikebreakers both government and private were: 1,936 federal troops, 4,000 national guardsmen, about 5,000 extra deputy marshals, 250 extra deputy sheriffs, and the 3,000 policemen in Chicago for a total of 14,186 strikebreakers. In addition to these figures there were also twelve people shot and killed, and 71 people who were arrested and sentenced on the federal indictment. This strike had other far ranging consequences. The federal government took an unprecedented step in using indictments to make any form of a strike essentially illegal and supported this action by deploying federal troops against the will of the states.

The results of the Pullman Strike were both enormous and inconsequential. They were enormous because the strike showed the power of unified national unions. At the same time the strike showed the willingness of the federal government to intervene and support the capitalists against unified labor. The results were inconsequential because for all of the unified effort of the unions the workers did not get their rents lowered.

So, several men in Chicago lost their lives, labor had been struck a tremendous blow, and President Grover Cleveland, fearing an even greater worker revolt, pushed the national holiday through Congress in order to appease the masses. And, now, we celebrate the day by grilling out and taking one last dip in the pool.

Here’s to all the men and women who died so that we might enjoy the 40 hour work week, safe working conditions, and all the rest of it… Let’s enjoy the fruits of their labor while we can, because God knows we’ll see kids working in coal mines again in our lifetimes. To do otherwise, after all, would be Socialism.

update: A link to the following graph was just left in the comments section. I thought that it deserved to be up here, where it had a greater likelihood of catching your attention.

[note: I posted the above update in 2011. If you have access to a more recent graph showing how both middle class income and union membership have fared over these last half dozen years, let me know.]

update: I was going to write something, here at the end of this post, about the people Trump has tapped to push forward his labor agenda, but, as luck would have it, I just happened across a new post at The Cap Times of Madison that said it better than I ever could. Here’s a clip.

…(Trump) has made that plain by assembling an administration that is packed with political grifters who have made it their business to defend sweatshops, depress wages and tip every balance toward multinational corporations.

Trump’s National Labor Relations Board picks — Marvin Kaplan and William Emanuel — have been greeted with scorn by advocates for a living wage and workplace fairness. As Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren told Emanuel during his confirmation hearing: “You have spent your career at one of the most ruthless, union-busting law firms in the country. How can Americans trust you will protect workers’ rights when you’ve spent 40 years fighting against them?”

Trump’s Secretary of Labor, Alexander Acosta, has a miserable history of aligning with right-wing and corporate interests. After law school, Acosta clerked for Third U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Samuel Alito. Alito is now the U.S. Supreme Court’s aggressive foe of worker rights. Acosta, who served briefly as a George W. Bush appointee to the National Labor Relations Board, went on to face harsh criticism for the partisanship he displayed on voting rights cases while leading the U.S. Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division.

As labor secretary, Acosta has remained on the wrong side. Just weeks ago, he appeared before the annual gathering of the militantly anti-labor American Legislative Exchange Council — along with anti-union zealot Betsy DeVos, Trump’s secretary of education.

Trump’s pick to serve as deputy secretary of labor, Patrick Pizzella, has an even more troubling record than Acosta. A former campaign staffer for Ronald Reagan who has served in Republican and Democratic administrations, Pizzella was once employed by the viscerally anti-union National Right to Work Committee and later joined the firm that scandal-plagued lobbyist Jack Abramoff was associated with before his 2006 conviction on federal charges that included attempted bribery.

When Alaska Republican Sen. Frank Murkowski proposed legislation to raise wages for workers in the Northern Marianas Islands, a U.S. territory that corporations used to get a “Made in the USA” label on sweatshop products, Pizzella lobbied for the sweatshop owners…

Speaking of sweatshops, today’s post was brought you by Ivanka Trump.

update: OK, it’s present day again, and Donald Trump has said that he’ll be blocking pay raises for all federal employees. It would appear that, in his opinion, there’s just not enough money to make cost-of-living increases possible. [Trump said that austerity, at least with regard to this issue, is necessary in order to “put our Nation on a fiscally sustainable course.”] I know what you’re thinking… How is it possible that we don’t have any money, as we were told that the GOP’s $1 trillion corporate tax cut would essentially pay for itself, as the economy would grow, and offset any short term losses with regard to federal revenue? Well, that never happened. The Republicans slashed corporate taxes, telling us that we’d all see big pay raises, and assuring us that we wouldn’t see cuts to federal programs. And pretty much the opposite happened. According to the most recent report from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the federal deficit is going to grow by another $804 billion in fiscal 2018. And worker pay didn’t rise – it fell, as companies, for the most part, decided not to invest their newfound wealth by investing in their people and their facilities, but instead used it to buy back stock, increasing shareholder wealth. Here’s just one of many charts from Bloomberg about the screwing of the American worker post-Trump. The blue line represents the hourly wage of the American worker.

Now that the American workers are beginning to wake to the lie of Trumpism, and the fact that it was never really about lifting up “the forgotten Americans,” but further enriching the members of the American oligarchy, there seems to be something of a correction underway, with momentum building on the left. And all the Republicans seem capable of saying in response is, “Socialism!“, as though the negative connotation of that single word might in itself be enough to make those losing their jobs and their healthcare say to their hungry kids, “Well, at least we aren’t evil socialists.” But, really, that’s all the Republicans now have. They’ve got fear of Socialism, and overt racism. Their bag of tricks is otherwise empty.

Here, if you don’t want to take my word for it, is Congressman Adam Schiff telling it like it is.

So, yeah, every little thing we fought for back in the late 1800s, is going to have to be fought for again, against adversaries with more to lose, and more weapons at their disposal.. Good luck, friends.

This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. Post a comment or leave a trackback: Trackback URL.

9 Comments

  1. John Galt
    Posted September 2, 2018 at 3:57 pm | Permalink

    Instead of complaining, the American workers should be thankful that Trump and the Republicans are taking their insurance. It’s one hell of a motivator to know that, if you don’t work harder and improve your lot in life, your loved ones will die.

  2. Git Mob
    Posted September 2, 2018 at 8:13 pm | Permalink

    Workers get what they deserve. If they didn’t stand up for unions, they deserve what’s coming their way.

  3. wobblie
    Posted September 3, 2018 at 8:57 am | Permalink

    As your graph demonstrates the assault on organized labor has been a bi-partisan affair. Your graph ends in 2007. Despite control of both houses of Congress and the Presidency in 2009, Obama would not pursue a pro-worker agenda and as a result private sector union density has fallen to about 6%, quit likely the lowest in history. With the recent Supreme Court decisions turning public sector workers into “right to work” workers, union density in the public sector will probably follow the same trajectory.
    It has not just been the failure of Liberals at the national level. Many “liberals” thought that Rick, the killer, Synder was preferable over Bernero–and along with lead posioing of Flint he brought us right to work. But remember it is those 50,000 Jill Stein voters who are at the root of all the evil befalling us.

    Happy Labor Day

  4. Jean Henry
    Posted September 3, 2018 at 9:02 pm | Permalink

    No one here has ever claimed independents were the root of all evil, Wobblie.
    They have no power beyond the vote, so how could they be?
    They do however own a share of the blame for our current political circumstance which is oh so much worse than Obama. The little power they had they used as a demonstration of their supposed personal moral superiority rather than in support of the needs of the people they claim to care most about.

    You are an unreliable narrator of many things, but above all of the positions of other progressives.

  5. Jean Henry
    Posted September 3, 2018 at 9:03 pm | Permalink

    Sorry— should read third party voters not independents.

  6. Ypsidoodledandy
    Posted September 4, 2018 at 10:33 am | Permalink

    Thanks for posting on the topic of Labor Day! It will not make you an internet star though, few topics are less beloved….

    I would love to join the scrum above in comments about who caused Trump, but I don’t have time just now. If I recall, the Libertarian candidate in Michigan got about 150,000 votes, and more than 10,000 (the margin of Trump’s Michigan win) 2012 Obama voters stayed home in 2016, but I’ll have to leave this topic for another day.

    Carl Sagan in 1995 and Noam Chomsky in 2010 both seem to have predicted Trump, interestingly enough:

    http://www.cbc.ca/radio/quirks/u-s-scientists-turn-north-for-help-making-tomatoes-great-again-and-more-1.3954868/carl-sagan-predicted-our-trump-era-future-1.3954900

    https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/noam-chomsky-predicted-trumps-presidency/

    Also, not sure Adam Schiff should be your source of wisdom…..

    A few weeks ago, Congress passed a spending bill that took away the remaining congressional oversight of the intelligence community. Before that, they voted to continue giving Trump unlimited surveillance abilities. According to The Intercept, “Leading the charge against reforms of the FBI’s domestic spying powers was Rep. Adam Schiff of California, the ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee

    https://www.truthdig.com/articles/six-ways-resistance-gave-trump-dictators-toolkit/

  7. Ypsidoodledandy
    Posted September 4, 2018 at 2:01 pm | Permalink

    I wrote a letter to friends and family for Labor Day 2018–I won’t burden you with the whole thing, but you might find this piece of it interesting:

    More interesting, however, is a little book I have started to read, by Oscar Ameringer, who you have never heard of, but who was quite well known at the beginning of the 1900s in the US–writing in the style of Mark Twain and friends apparently with the poet Carl Sandburg. He seems to have led a long, wild life of speaking, writing, traveling, agitating. I read his autobiography (“If You Don’t Weaken” it is titled) in graduate school.

    The little book is called Life and Deeds of Uncle Sam (a forerunner of Howard Zinn, it seems….). The book sold over half a million copies between 1909 and 1917 and was translated into 15 languages, according to the introduction (written by a Paul Buhle). I have not read the book yet, and I’m not a fan of Twain (so if it is in that style I won’t like it) but from the Buhle introduction much that is appropos to today (since humans, they are still the same….):

    “By the 1870s-90s, they faced an official America at its self-congratulatory apex, bloated with moral vindication…yet curiously indifferent to the degredation of the working classes under the spreading industrial-financial empire–and purblind to….America’s international role…. Business and its apologists flatly aimed to keep the impoverished minions in check through star-spangled rhetoric and outright appeals to xenophobia, racism and patriarchy. On the surface, they appeared to suceed. Radicalism disappeared from two-party politics after 1870. Radical Reconstruction drowned in blood and cynicism, reform-minded labor found itself betrayed by its leaders or crushed by unprecedented use of military force, and even Populism was swallowed up by the Democratic Party. Public credulity seemed at times boundless in depth and endless in duration.”

    How did the little book get so popular?

    “Much of….(it)…..can be found in the spontaneous political enthusiasm Life and Deeds generated. No other…book…was likely so often to be given away by friend to friend or friend to acquaintance in hopes of breaking through politically on some emotional/intellectual level. …it threw a flashlight upon a different America uncomfortably vivid to any but the willfully blind.”

  8. wobblie
    Posted September 4, 2018 at 3:47 pm | Permalink

    Ypsidoodledandy be careful what you read. That Armeringer character was another 3rd party zealot, no corporate Democrat or Republican for him. He is practically a Jill Stein or Ralph Nader kinda person .

  9. John Brown
    Posted September 4, 2018 at 7:42 pm | Permalink

    Labor better get it’s ass ready to assert itself now! This criminal usurper presents a great opportunity for a hard pendulum swing.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Connect

Sidetrack ad Aubree’s ad BUY LOCAL... or shop at Amazon through this link Banner Initiative Linnette Lao